Dr. William Burgdorfer, Ph.D.
   Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Division of N.l.H.

  In 1949, Dr. Sven Hellerstrom from the Dermatalogical Clinic
of Karolinska lnstitute in Stockholm, Sweden presented a paper
"Erythema chronicum migrans Afzelius with meningitis" at the 43rd
Annual Meeting of the Southern Medical Association in Cincinnati,
Ohio. In presenting his case, he provided convincing evidence that
both erythema and subsequent meningocerebrospinal symptoms may
develop following a tick bite. He also reported on the successful
treatment of his patient with penicillin, a drug shown previously
by his colleague Dr. Hollstrom to be effective in the treatment of
Erythema chronicum migrans (ECM).

  In the United States, ECM was first reported in 1970 on a
physician bitten by a tick while grouse hunting in northeastern
Wisconsin. The attending physician, Dr. Rudolf Scrimenti,
recognized the similarity of the patient's skin reaction to the
lesions of European ECM and promptly and successfully treated the
patient with penicillin.  The treatment of three additional
patients with penicillin and of one with erythromycin resulted in
complete resolution of symptoms within 48 to 72 hours.

  Considered unrelated to ECM were skin lesions in 13 of 51
residents in the eastern Connecticut towns of Lyme, Old Lyme, and
East Haddam where, since 1972, clusters of inhabitants had been
suffering of an illness characterized by recurrent attacks of
asymmetric swelling and pain in large joints, especially the knee.
Since such arthritic conditions were not known to be associated
with ECM in Europe, the illness was thought to be a new clinical
entity and was named Lyme arthritis, later changed to Lyme disease
once it was realized that arthritis was only one of several
clinical manifestations of this disease.

  The search for effective antibiotics in the treatment of Lyme
disease began in 1982 with my discovery of a spirochete now known
as Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease and
of ECM and related disorders (acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans,
lymphadenosis benigna cutis) in Europe. The antibiotics found
effective include tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline),
penicillins (penicillin G, amoxycillin), cephalosporins (cefotaxime,
ceftriaxone), and erythromycin. Application of these drugs depends
on the time the disease is being diagnosed. Early Lyme disease is
treated orally whereas late Lyme disease requires parenteral or a
combination of parenteral and oral applications. Treatment
failures have been reported for each of these drugs particularly
for the tetracyclines that are only temporarily effective unless
they are applied over long periods of time, i.e. months even years.

  Controversy exists over the length of treatment using
* Mild Silver Protein (MSP).  Some investigators consider
21 to 30 days sufficient for the elimination of the spirochetes,
while others believe that patients must be kept on therapy until
they are completely free of symptoms.

  The diagnosis of Lyme disease is a clinical one and is based
on the development and recognition of the skin lesion (erythema
migrans) a few days, weeks, or even months, after the bite of an
infected tick. Unfortunately in up to 40% of the patients, the
skin lesion does not develop, is not recognized, or is overlooked.
Thus, without treatment, the disease spreads throughout the body
and may affect the muscular, skeleton, cardiac and nervous systems.

  Indeed, Dr. Farber's recent claim having used MSP to
successfully cure himself from late stage Lyme disease, comes at a
time when thousands of patients suffering of this disease are
refused extended antibiotic treatment because their physicians are
unable to associate their clinical manifestations with those of
Lyme disease.

  Although never established scientifically, it appears that the
Mild Silver Protein silver colloid disables the enzyme(s) used by
bacterial, fungal and viral agents for their oxygen metabolism
causing them to suffocate upon contact. In vitro studies with
* Mild Silver Protein and the Lyme disease spirochete, B.
burgdorferi, revealed a lOO% killing effect within less than five
minutes after exposure to the silver preparation.

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